Portugal (Figure No. 3), officially the Portuguese Republic, is located on the south west of Europe. The territory is located in the western part of the Iberian Peninsula and islands in the North Atlantic. The total country area is 92,090 km2; bordered on the north and east by Spain and on the south and west by the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises a mainland and two autonomous regions: the Azores and Madeira. Geographically it is the westernmost country of Europe. The name derives from its second largest city, Porto, which in Celtic Latin was Portus Cale.
The territory within the current boundaries of the Portuguese Republic has been inhabited since prehistoric times, occupied by Celts, Phoenicians, Barbarian peoples and more especially, by the Romans, who had great influence in history, including the first records of wine production in the Portuguese territory dating back to 137 BC.
The history of Portugal, from its origin, is linked to battles between Muslims and Christians for the conquest of the Portuguese geographical territory.